Monday, August 16, 2010

Historical background and records of the Zo/Zou people

The Zo/Zou people
The name Zo or Zou is the name of a Tibeto-Mongoloid group of people, a sub-family of the Kuki-Chin race inhabiting the Chin State and Sagaing division of Myanmar(Burma) and also Chandel and Churachandpur districts of Manipur state in India respectively. These people have been calling themselves Jou or Zo/Zou, since the time immemorial, even before the advent of the British colonial rulers into their lands.
While many colonial civil servants and modern writers, have recorded and referred the Zo/Zou tribe variously as Yo, Yoe, Yau, Yaw, Zo, Zou; the Zo/Zous in Manipur state initially used the term ‘Jou’ to designate themselves with the establishment of their first Church known as Jou Christian Association1 (JCA) founded on 20th, February 1954.
The Zo/Zous firmly believed that they have originated from their ancient progenitor- Pu Zo meaning ‘grandfather Zo’ or Progenitor Zo or Ancestor Zo, and so, they firmly believe and claim that they are the original descendents of a historic eponymous person known as Zo or Pu Zo as proved by the genealogical records of various Zo clans since time immemorial.2 Unlike the meaning(connotation) as understood and denoted by some authors in the early 1940s and 1950s such as James Herbert Lorrain(Pu Buanga) had entered in his Dictionary of Lushai language and interpreted the term Zo to denote “the name of the Lushais. (Some use this name to include other neighbouring hill tribes.).” 3 or ‘Highlanders’.4, 65
Although, they called themselves Zo/Zou since time immemorial, the first historical written record about the Zo/Zous as reported by Mr. Hrangchuaka and Mr. Dawnthawma; in a bulletin ‘Khristian’ in the year 1926, thus; “ They all called themselves by the racial name or tribal name; Zo......” 7, 12
During the early 1950s written records of the Zou tribe in India began to appear with the coming of a new generation of educated Zous. This fact is proved by the Forwarding given by Mr. T. Gougin in the Custom booklet; The Jou Custom Book(Tondan) dated July 1957 A.D in which he records; “The Booklet entitled ‘The Jou Custom(Tondan) written in Joukam(language) is primarily intended to make known to the Government that the so-called Jou Tribe’ has also such a beautiful culture, usage and custom. It is hoped that the booklet will be of immense value for Officers/Magistrates for consultation in their day-today trial of the judicial cases concerning about Jou Tribes.”6 From early 1950s onwards, when they accepted Christianity and Modern education, and all throughout the 1960s, the Zo/Zous have been employing the term ‘Zomi’8 to denote their socio-cultural-religious organisations until 2007 A.D, when they shifted to the term Zou to denote their socio-cultural-politcal organisations in India. However, the Zos of Myanmar and the Diaspora people still hold onto the term Zo.11, 41, 60, 61
It is evident from the above that the usage of the spelling Zo7 or ‘Zomi’ came into socio-cultural, political and literary usage with the advent of Christianity and Western educations among the Zou people who were perhaps, the last group of Kuki-Chin race to accept Christianity and Western education.
The term Zo have been employed in many books written by the Zo/Zous themselves. The first complete version of the Holy Bible in Zo language 1983 A.D used the title ‘The Holy Bible in Zo’ and the second Holy Bible 1993 A.D also used the word ‘Zomi’ i.e Holy Bible in Zomi.
Mr. T. Gougin in his book ‘A Brief History of Zou’8 , (L) Thangkhanlal in his Zo primers9 and Mr. Gou Za Pau and Mr. Kaikhohau in their booklet Zo Sannemla10 and several others used the terms: Zo and Zomi to denote this particular Zo/Zou speaking tribe. The Zo/Zou elders have used it in naming a colony in Imphal in 1975 known as Zomi Villa67 and Zomi Colony68. It has also been used continuously by the Zo Baptist Association (ZBA since 1962)11, Tonzang, Myanmar, the Zo Presbyterian Synod Church11 Myanmar, the Zo Holy Bible(ZBA version 2008), Dictionary of Zo Poetic words, Metaphors and Similes59, the Zo Christian Bible Church(2003)69, Upzie Kantelna70 Part II, 2004, Kalemyo, till date and it was used by the Zomi Christian Church12, the Zomi Kristian Labupi( Zomi Christian Literature Comittee)13, Zomi Colony, Churachandpur, Manipur since 1954 and a few years back.
Historical records
I) The earliest historical records of Zo was written by Fan-Cho a diplomat of Tang dynasty of China who mentioned in 862 A.D. a kingdom in Chindwin valley whose princes and chiefs were callled Zo or Shou or Zhou.14
II)Perhaps, the most genuine historical records of the Zo/Zou people were written down by Rev.Fr.Vincentious Sangermano; a Catholic Missionary who came to Burma in 1783, wrote in his book titled ‘A Description of the Burmese Empire’ wrote about the Zo/Zou people. The extracts are given as under:- “To the East of Chien Mountains between 20o30’ and 21o30’ North latitude is a petty nation called ‘Jo’. They are supposed to have been Chien, who in progress of time, have become Burmanized, speaking their language, although very corruptly, and adopting all their customs.” 15
III) R.B. Pemberton mentioned about the Jo country in his book ‘The Eastern Frontier of India’ as follows; “The next river of any magnitude is that which under the name of Yooma Khyoung flows from north to south through the Jo country or that level tract which lies between the Dunghii hill, on the right bank of the Irrawattee, and the eastern foot of Yooma mountains: the sources of this stream are in about latitude 22o 30’, and from the shortness of its course, we have inferred, what Buchanan upon native information asserts to be the case...” 16
IV) Sir Henry Yule in his ‘A Narrative of the Mission of the Court of Ava' wrote about the Zo/Zou people a follows; “...of the Yau country, lying along the river of that name, between the barren Tangyi Hills that line Erawadi, opposite Pagan and Mabasa of the Arakan Yoma-downg....The Yaus are great trader and are the
chief peddlers and carriers of northern Burma in 1839.”17
V) It is recorded in the History of the Chin Mission Northern Chin State combined by France Missionaries p.55, Bishop Bigandet sent French Missionary Fr. Lecomte based at Nabek since 1861 to survey the ‘Yo’ people around the Chindween valley in 18 6 4 A.D 18.
VI) Betram S.Carey CIE, Assitant Commissioner, Burma, and Political Officer, Chin Hills and H.N.Tuck, Extra Assitant Commissioner, Burma and Assistant Political
Officer, Chin Hills wrote about the Zo/Zou people in ‘THE CHIN HILLS’ as follows:-
“The Yo tribe three generations back occupied the tract now occupied by the Kanhow clan of Soktes, and many of the Kanhow villages are inhabited still by
Yos, whose tribal name has given way to that of Kanhow. As has been shown in the previous chapter, Kantum, the Sokte, conquered all the inhabitants right up to the borders of Manipur, and Kanhow, his son, founded Tiddim village and ruled the newly acquired conquests of his father. The conquered Yos thus became known as Kanhowte, Kanhow’s men, and as they intermaried with the Soktes who settled north with Kanhow, there is no real difference between the conquerors and the conquered”19. It is told that the Zo/Zou people ruled over vast tracts of the northern Burma and its adjoining regions upto circa 1845 A.D. During the British Rule the Zo/Zous and their cognate group(Tedim Chin) were recorded as Kamhaus and their language was known as Kamhau dialect mainly because of their illiteracy and subjugation by the colonial rulers who propped up the Sukte chief Kanhow to suppress the Zos and the Siyins(Sizangs) of the Chin Hills. The British recorded the conquered villages as Kamhau tracts(ibid.; see map).
VII) Capt. F.M Rundall in his Manual of the Siyin dialect spoken in the Northern Chin Hills wrote like this; “I do not know the origin of the name CHIN. It is Burmese i fancy. Anyhow, the Chins donot know the word CHIN and call themselves “Zo”, “Zote” being the plural”20.
VIII) The National Archives of India, New Delhi (NAI), Foreign Department, Extl. A, October 1893, Nos. 33 - 34, dated Camp Falam, 28 September 1892, Nos. 80 -88 recorded Zou as Yoe. Official statistics for the year 1893 showed that the Zou tribe consisted of nineteen villages and 630 households, inhabiting a tract lying between 60 and 90 miles north and north-west of Fort White. The list of the nineteen Zou villages are: Tuitum, Nabu, Kwunki, Tuidam, Chenglam, Mulam, Vanglai, Loibual, Savum, Yimwell, Buksau, Tunzang, Tunka, Tunvum, Hawbon, Chilpi, Beltung, and Narlzan(Nahzang).” 21, 66
IX) George.A Grierson in the Linguistic Survey of India, Vol.3 Part III, 1904, India, writes about how the Kuki Chin people called themselves as given here;
“Chin is a Burmese word used to denote the variou hill tribes living in between Burma and the Provinces of Assam and Bengal. It is written and dialectically pronounced Khyang. The name is not used by the tribes themselves, who use the titles such as Zo or Yo and Sho” 22.
X) Initially, Rev. J.H Cope recorded them as ‘Jo’ extracts of which are as follows, “Ma sa in jo mi khem peu a’pau a’ki khat hi” ‘at first the language of all Zo/Zou peoples were identical’ “.... Jo mi hing te in a’i mu lai tak mang kang te in na a sem hi” ‘When Zo persons are asleep, the Englishmen are working’. “Jo pau ka’the ke hi, a’bai ke hi”23 ‘I don’t know Jo language, it is not easy’.
XI) In the year 1931 A.D, a detailed Census of India24 was conducted under the supervision of Capt. J.H. Green for the Kuki-Chin group of people and their respective languages and others, in that Census 44(forty four) separate languages were recorded as belonging to Kuki-Chin group. In that group the Yo(or Zo) appeared at serial no.7.
XII) In the year 1926 A.D, two missionaries Mr Hrangchuaka and Mr Dawnthawma who visited the Zo/Zou land wrote their about them in the bulletin named ‘Khristian’ issue of ‘Phaipui Bial Presbytery Ro-rel, July, 1926 A.D. An abridged free rendition of its translation of the above write up is reproduced here in English:- “First of all, I would like to tell briefly about the land as described below:- The country is located in the Imphal areas and north of Guite tracts, between the lands of Meitei and Sukte along the valley of Imphal river. Like, the Lushei country they people have petty chieftains in the small villages which are not extensive enough. They all called themselves by the racial name or tribal name; Zo...; ....they are very ignorant and illiterate; I learnt that they fought against the Government few years back. Religion: They are all worshippers of spirits of their forefathers, and they practised animal sacrifices to propitiate the spirits. “I do not have a son. If I follow God will I have a son? They used to asked me,thus, the Zo ram ‘Zo country’ does not hear that God sent his only begotten son to redeem the sinners, therefore, I implore to you to please pray for this Zo people.”7
XIII) Rev. Liangkhaia in his book; Mizo Chanchin Bu I gives an account of the Zo/Zou people as Zoho te which is reproduced here: “Hêng kan kiang hnai a tlangmi, Pawiho te, Paihteho te, Thahdo hote, Hmar te, Kâwm te, Zoho te, Chiru te, Aimawl te, Khawl te, Tarau te, Anal te, Purum te, Tikhup te, Vaiphei te, Lakher te, Langrâwng te, Chawrai te, Bâwng te, Mual thuam te, Kaihpên te, Pangkhua te, Tlang lau te, Biate te, Hrangkhawl te, Bawmzo te, Miria te, Dâwn te, Takam te, Kumi te, Darlawng te ho nên phei chuan kan la in hlâ lo tih chiang tak taka hriatna tur a la tam a ni.Hêng hote nên hi chuan kan tawng te, kan ei zawn dân te, kan inthawi dân te, leh kan khawsak dân tam tê chu a la in-ang a, chuvangin chhui vak pawh ngai lovin kan la in hlat loh zia chu a hriat theih hlê a ni.” 25
Other recent historical records
XIV) Rev. Fr. Aloysius Ravalico S.D.B recorded his visit to Singtom village in 1951-52 where is celebrated Mass with Zou Catholics. He also mentioned about his visit to Kholien, Kathuong, Muollien, Muolnuom and Khuongtal etc in 1953.26
XV) Bishop Orestes Marengo S.D.B recorded about his visit to the Zou areas of the Chin Hills in a village named Kwawntal(Khuongtal) where he was warmly welcomed by the Headman. “By far the largest and farthest village of the Zou area of the Chin Hills was Kwawntal. Perched majestically on a high mountain overlooking the Burmese side of the Chin Hills, Kwawntal could boast of a hundred percent Catholic population except the headman. The front of his house was bedecked with the skulls of elephants, tigers, buffaloes, deers and other animals hed had hunted in his younger days.”27
XVI) Fr. Lazar Jayseelan wrote about the Zou people in the History of the Catholic Church in Manipur as given here; “Before the partition of India and Myanmar, the Chin Hills(now Chin State, Myanmar) and Manipur were under one administrative umbrella of British India. In the early 1900’s many Zous had already settled in villages like Khuongtal, Jangdung, Kathuong, Muollien, Sachihphaijang(Sajiktampak, Paldai etc. Later on during the Second World War, groups of Zou Catholics families from Khiangkan, Phaitu, Lennakot(Denlha), Langphun, Senam and Khampat in the Chin Hills also came and settled at Khuongtal, Kathuong, Muollien, Senam, Singkangphai, T. Langphun and Gelngai in Tengnoupal circle(now Chandel District) of British India.This indicates that the Zous have been living around the valley of Kana river and on the Lentaang mountains since the beginning of the 19th century.”28 “It was in 1939 onwards that one of the catechists of Tonzang parish with St. Paul like zeal in the person of Peter Haukhokam Tungdim of Langphun village in Chin Hills who started preaching the Catholic faith in and around his village and then at the Zou villages of Khuongtal, Jangdung and Kathuong. He finally preached at Muollien village in 1940. These villages are all in Kana area.” ibid He also spread the goodnews in the following Zo villages of the Chin Hills viz; Ta%lzâng, Buongmuol, Sielméi, Khiéngla%m, Khiéngka%n, Bongnuoi, Doljang etc. “After the Second World War i.e 1946 onwards there was a flourishing trade(buying and selling of horses etc) between the Chin Hills and Manipur of the British India through Sugnu-Khuongtal-Senam hill tract. Groups of Zou businessmen like T. Semzakhup and T. Suonkhen of Khiéngka%n, Carolus Khuolzachin, Marcus Huotza-ai and John Ngamkhosuon Taithul of Kathuong village.”29.
XVII) F.K. Lehman states in Illinois studies in Anthropology No.3 as follows;
‘Between Burma and India there lived a racial group of people who are living with their tradition and customs firmly. They were not easy in ruling. They worship ‘SHA’ which they often called it JIN. Their original name is Jou30.
\ XXII) Thein Pe Myint recorded thus “Even though, those tribes of people who are called Chin do not necessarily protest their name, their original name is, infact ‘Jou’ ”. 36
XXIII) J Gin Za Tuang’s book Zomi Innkuan gives an account of the migration of Zo people from the Chindwin river valley, other people called them Chin, he says, in fact, our real name is rather Zo.37
XXIV) Ngulkhohao Hlungdim in his book ‘A History of Manipur’(in Kuki)38 mentioned about the Zo/Zou people in connection with Zogal(Kuki Rebellion: 1917-1919) as given here in free rendition ; The Zou group of chiefs in Singat areas met at Behieng and they resolved to fight against the white rulers, if anyone does not take part in the war campaign he would be killed and burnt to cinders.
XXV) Sing Khaw Khai remarked about the Zo/Zou people in his book; Zo people and their Culture thus: “The Zo/Zous(Yos) are most unique in the sense of the name they bear and the culture they practice in reflection of the ancient Zo tradition. Their origin myth points back to times immemorial. No proper study has yet been made as to why the generic Yo as spelt in former literature was applied to them. Yo families are today living in north-east of Tedim town, in Tonzang township, in Kale-Kabaw valley, and also in Manipur state, India.” 39
XXVII) L.K Liana in his book Zofate Thuhla gives an account of Paite and other including the Zo as follows: “Paiteho hi thenkhat sawidan chuan ‘Paite’ Kal tate tihna a ni an ti a, ‘according to the version of some people Paite means Kaltate ‘sons of those who went’, Chimnuai atangin hmun dang dang ah an inthendarh a, an hnam tlangpui chu Vuite, Ngaihte, Teizang, Thado(Khuangsai), Sukte, Sihzang, Vaiphei, Baite, Gangte, Zo an ni. Tedim bial leh Tonzang bialah an awm a, tunah chuan Kawlphai ah leh Tiau tlangah tamtak an awm bawk.” 46
He also mentions about the Sukte chiefs and Zos and others as follows; “Sukteho hi a tirah chuan lalna lamah an ropui lo. ....Khanthuama lal chinah hian hnamdang lal Thado, Zo, Vaiphei, Vuite, Ngaite leh Khuano chu a hneh vek a, a ram a zauhta ani. Khanthuama hi 1840 ah a thi a, a fatlum(tatum) Zapaua a lal zui. Khanthuama fapa upaber Kamhaua chuan Tedim ah lalna khua a din a, Manipur ramri thlengin ram zautak a awp a. Chutichuan Sukte ram leh Kamhau ram tiin an nisemta a, Kamhau ram a zauta zawk ani.” 47
XXVIII) V. Lunghnema in his book Mizo Chronicles Chapter 24 under the heading “Manipur Chhinlung Hnahthlakte” describes the various Mizo-Kuki tribes; 1. Anal unaute; 2. Mayon(Mazawn) leh Monsang chi te; 3. Maring; 4. Lamkang; 5. Chiru; 6. Aimol(Aimual); 7. Purum; 8. Koireng(Kawlhren); 9. Kawm(Kom); 10. Chawngthu Hote; 11. Khuangsai chi (tribe); 12. Thado; 13. Rangte(Gangte); 14. Paite; 15. Vaiphei; 16. Hmar; 17. Zo; 18. Simte; 19; Baite; 20. Lusei. At serial no. 17 where Zo is listed he writes like this: “Zo tia chi anga in sawi hote hi Mizo hlahtu bulpui ber an ni hial awm e; ‘The Zo which is discussed as a tribe, seems to be the foremost and main root progenitor of Mizo’ . .....50
XXIX) H. Kamkhenthang mentioned about the Zous in his book the Paite; A Transborder Tribe of India and Burma, 1988 as follows; “The so-called Kuki rebellion of 1917-1919 was known to the Paite as Zougaal, a war waged by the Zou8 tribe….It maybe noted that the Thadou and the Zou are cognate ethnic units stemming from the Chin group”.51
XXX) Kham Do Nang in his Upto date history of Zo tribes recorded about the dispersions of the Zo/Zous from the Chin Hills during the heydays of Khanthuam Sukte thus; “ When Khan Thuam attacked Zote of Kaal Zaang village(Oct, 1843) all Zote descendant from Kaal Zaang and from some other surrounding villages shifted to such villages as Kip Zang, Tong Sial, Mual Nuam and Thal Mual villages, all situated to the west Manipur river(Gûngàl) of Myanmar. Some other Zote decendants shifted to Manipur state of India from the western Manipur river of Myanmar to avoid the great taxes of Khan Thuam(ibid., p.149) and to avoid the great dangers of Za Hau and Hual Ngo dacoits(ibid., p.117-119) of those days.44, 63 They all shifted again to Lushai Hills and the Lushai people now call them Paih Te” 43 They were driven out by their kindred but more powerful tribes(58). This fact is confirmed by an extract from J. Shakespeare’s book; The Lushai Kuki Clans as follows; “ There are eleven Vuite village, numbering 877 houses, in the south-west corner of the Manipur state and two in the adjoining portions of the Lushai Hills... The clan is generally known to the Lushais as Paihte, but Vuite is the term more commonly used by its members and in Manipur.”57, 63
Way back in the earlier 1940s, some Lusei/Lushai(Mizo) historians used to record the Zous as; Zo hote25 (Liangkhaia,1940) and in the late 1970s, they were recorded as Zomi53(Hranglien Songate 1977), as Zo51(Z.Z. Lien 1981) and in the early 1990s they were still described as Zo49 (Lunghnema 1993) and as Zote64(Guite, Zamzachin 1992).
Since the late 1970s and mid 1980s through 1990s, due to cultural and political awakenings, many of the Kuki-Chin-Mizo historians and writers have come to conclude that the original ancient name of the Kuki-Chin-Mizo race is Zo or Zou.
Bibliography and References Notes
1. J.C.A: 1954; Jougam-Thusuo Vol.I Douta March 1954 Ist year which is recorded as 10th Feb, 1954 by M.G.P/M.E.P in JCA Golden Jubilee Souvenir 2004. However, the Souvenir- Tapidaw 50; A Memento of 50 years of Christianity, 2004, p.15, 16, Zomi Colony, Churachandpur, Manipur, India, released by ELCC, Manipur cites the date a 20th February, 1954, Daijang village on page 4 and the last cover page with handwritten script.
2. Khupzathang, K.A. Capt.; Genealogy of Chin Race of Burma, 1973, Rangoon, cited in Sing Khaw Khai’s Zo People and their Culture, 1995, p.74. Way back in the late 1970s, as a teenager my mother used to tell me that ‘we are Zo suonte and the Vaipheis are also Zo/Zou suonte’ which quite were baffling to me in those days!
3. Lorrain, J.H.; Dictionary of the Lushai Language, 1990, p.569; Asiatic Society, Calcutta, 3rd print. It is not yet confirmed whether the entry of the word ‘Zo’ found at page 569 was originally incorporated in the first edition(1940, London) or not, it is quite probable that the entry for of the word Zo must have been done in the later editions of this dictionary. The first edition of the Dictionary of the Lushai Language, 1940 A.D .i.e the original print could be an authentic source to prove.
4. Ibid.; p.320. it is quite possible that the Zo and Mizo words must have been entered in the later editions of this dictionary in view of the long dormancy or latency of being applied to the Lushais of the Lushai Hills(Mizo as applied today) as recorded evidences are found from the writings of Lushai/Mizo historians/authors in the first part of 1940 and through the 1990s which are discussed under the headings of various authors here.
5. Kamzadou Samte.; Oral statement recorded by the author at Zoveng, Lamka, Churachandpur in 1995 A.D. He told that with the founding of the Z.S.P at Tuaitengphai village on 15th October, 1958, the letter Z was preferred over J and it began to be employed since then.
6. Jou Customary Book; Jou Tawndan dated 1-12-1957 forwarded by T. Gougin, arranged and edited by T. Gougin, Sub. Thangkhokam, edited by Mr Vummang, Mr. Jamkhogin and published by Nengjakham and Sianjahao.
7. Hrangchuaka and Dawnthawma; Khristian ‘Phaipui Bial Presbytery Ro-rel’ July,1926, a Lushai language bulletin published from Aijal. Its existence was not known the Zo/Zous themselves before the year 2000 A.D. This record was preserved by Mr. Dongzakai Gangte of Chiengkawnpang, Churachandpur, Manipur. It was publicized in the Golden Jubilee Souvenir of ELCC Manipur, in the year 2004 A.D at page 48 courtesy Pu. Dongzakai Gangte who runs as Zo Museum in Churachandpur(Lamka).
8. Gougin, T.; A Brief History of Zou 1961, Churachandpur, Manipur. He used both Zo and Zomi to designate the Zou tribe. O is a dipthong equivalent to Ou adopted in the early part of 1990 by some writers. Ou dipthong i.e Zou spelling was finally adopted by United Zomi Organisation in the year 2007 by changing its name into United Zou Organisation, similarly, name change was affected by the Z.S.P and Z.Y.O subsequently.
9. Thangkhanlal; Zolai Bu Ina, Bu IIna leh Bu IIIna, 1973, Chura-chandpur, Manipur.
10. Gou Za Pau and Kaikhohau.; Zo sannemla, 1985, Zoveng, Churachandpur. and by the elders in naming a colony in Imphal known as Zomi Villa, Imphal, in christening Zomi Colony by Mr. Chinkham Munluo in the heart of Churachandpur town, by youth of Chandel district as Zomi Youth Association(1981), at Sugnu Lamhang and Zoveng village and in the Zo song book; Zokuomthawn, 1981.
11. AD 2000 ZO MAGAZINE; March 2001, Kalaymyo, Myanmar(Burma). Even though, Zo and Zou may appear morphonemically different, both o and ou are dipthongs, both have the same semantics to the Zo/Zous; descendants of eponymous progenitor Pu Zo or Pu Zou.
12. Tapidaw 50; A Memento of 50 years of Christianity, ELCC, Churachandpur, Manipur, India, 2004, p.15, 16, Zomi Colony, Churachandpur, Manipur, India.
13. Zomi Christian Literature Comittee.;Zomi Khristian Labupi, 1st edit 1954, 4th edit., 1989, Zomi Colony, Churachandpur, Manipur.
14. Fan Ch‘o.; Man Shu-Book of the Southern Barbarians, 862 A.D. Translated by Luce, G.H.and Edited by Oey, G.P., Ithaca, New York. Cornell University, Southeast Asia Program Data Paper No. 44. 1961, cited in Vumson, Zo History, p.1.
15. Sangermano Vincentious Fr; "A Description of the Burmese Empire" 1783 A.D, p.35, published in 1835 A.D, Rome in Latin, later it was translated into English by William Tandy D.D reprinted; Goverment Press, Yangon; MDCLXXXV.
16. Pemberton, R.B.; The Eastern Frontier of India, 1835 A.D, p.9, photographically reproduced in 1979 and 2000, New Delhi.
17. Yule, Henry; 1855, A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava, 1855, p.279.
18. Go, Khup Za; Zo minam tawh kisai thu, 2001, p.18, New Delhi.
19. Carey, Betram S. CIE, Assitant Commissioner, Burma, and Political Officer, Chin Hills and H.N.Tuck Extra Assitant Commissioner, Burma and Assistant Political Officer, Chin Hills wrote ‘THE CHIN HILLS’ 1896, Volume I, p.140.
20. Rundall, F.M.; Manual of the Siyin dialect spoken in the Northern Chin Hills, 1891, p.20, Rangoon. Also, found in Kham Do Nang’s Thesis, p. 14.
21. National Archives of India, New Delhi (NAI), Foreign Department, Extl. A, Oct, 1893, Nos.33-34, dated Camp Falam, 28 September 1892, Nos. 80 -88.
22. Grierson, G.A.; Linguistic Survey of India, Tibeto-Burman family: Kuki Chin, Burma group Vol.3 Part III, 1904, p.02, Calcutta, India.
23. Cope, J.H.; A Chin Primer (Kamhau Dialect), 1920, Lessons No. 25 and 30; ABM Press, Rangoon and A Chin Primer in the Sizang Dialect, 1914, Lesson Nos. 16, 21, 22; ABM Press Rangoon, also cited by Khup Za Go in his book; Zo minam tawh kisai thu, 2001, p.22, New Delhi.
24. Green, J.H.Capt; Census of India, 1931, p.198, Vol. XI, Part I, A report by I.J Bennison, ‘A note on the Indigenous Race of Burma’ Government Printing Press, Rangoon, cited in Sing Khaw Khai; Zo People and Their Culture: A historical, cultural study and critical analysis of Zo and its ethnic tribes, 1995, p. 4, Chura chandpur, Manipur: Published by Khampu Hatzaw.
25. Liangkhaia, Rev.; Mizo Chanchin Bu I; History of Lushai Part I, 1940, p.4, para; 2,published by Hmingliana & Sons, Govt & Pvt. Contractors, Aijal, Printed by Mr. A.P Sircar at the New Lila Printing & Binding Works, 53, Creek Row, Calcutta.
26. Ravalico, Aloysius, Fr; The Herald of Jesus Christ, 1961-62, Shillong.
27. Marengo, Orestes, Bishop, SDB; N.E India’s unparalled missionary 2000, p.243-246, by Joseph Puthenpurakal SDB, published by the Vendrame Institute Publications, Shillong.
28. Lazar, Jayseelan; History of the Catholic Church in Manipur; 2005, p.60, para.1&3.(revised 2nd edit), Archdiocese of Imphal, Imphal, Catholic Manipur Publication, Imphal, Manipur.
29. Ibid,; p.62, para; 2, 3&4.
30. Lehman, F. K.; Studies in Anthropology No.3, 1963, p.179 (Urbans, Illinois: The University of Illinois Press).
31. -------do-------; The Structure of Chin Society, 1963, p.3, 2nd edit. 1980 arrangement with University of Illinoi, U.S.A, Firma KLM Pvt. Ltd. on behalf of Tribal Research Institute, Govt. of Mizoram, Aizawl, India.
32. Ibid.; p. 30, para; 1,3, lai lo .
33. Ibid.; lai lo and zo lo 53-56,
34. Ibid.; p. 165 zo puan rang
33+35. Vum Ko Hau; Profile of Burma Frontier man, 1963, p.238. para; 1, Bandung, cited in Mangkhosat Kipgen’s book ‘Christianity and Mizo Culture’, 1996, p.18.
36. Thein Pe Myint; History of Chin Special Division, 1967, p.172, Yangon, Govt. Press.
37. Gin Za Tuang, J.; Zomi Innkuan, 1973-4, p.16, Tedim.
38. Lhungdim, Ngulkhohao; ‘A History of Manipur’(in Kuki),1990, p.117, 119, 129, 153, 154, 155, 157, Molnom, Churachandpur.
39. Sing Khaw Khai; Zo People and Their Culture: A historical, cultural study and critical analysis of Zo and its ethnic tribes, 1995, p. 22-23, Churachandpur, Manipur: Published by Khampu Hatzaw.
40. Ibid.; p.2;
41. Kham Do Nang.; Upto date history of Zo tribes(Zo ngaina leh tuonthu khangthu) 1994, p.472, 489, unpublished Thesis for Degree of B.R.E, Myanmar Institute of Theology, Seminary Hill, Insein, Yangon, Myanmar.
42. Ibid., p.18, 49, Muallungthu conference 1946.
43. Ibid., p. 138 , Paihte
44. Ibid.; p. 117-119. In olden days, the Za Hau and Hual Ngo raiders were understood and designated as Poi or Pawite by the Zos. The Zos were constantly raided by the Poi warriors, so much so, that there was mass transfer of the Zos into the Poi culture and traditions, the Zos among the Pois/Pawis underwent acculturation process in course of time. Two classic examples are found from Vacih village(circa 1895; Lienzaw clans) and Senam61 village (1891-92; It is told by my unlces that about 80 persons belonging to the Tungdim clan and Mantuong clan were kidnapped by the Pois)
45. Ibid.; p. 473. Various names Zotung, Zophei, Asho, Yaw.
43+46.L.K Liana; Zofate Thuhla 1994, p.42, published by C. Lalsanglura, Printed by Zodin Pringting Press, Tuikual ‘S’, Below Vanapa Hall, Aizawl, Mizoram.
47. Ibid, p.43.
48. Ibid, p.12.
49. Lunghnema, V. Col.; Mizo Chronicles 1993, p.251 Published by H. Zairema, Printed at L & R Press, Churachandpur, Manipur-795128.
50. Ibid., p. 252.
51. Kamkhenthang, H.; The Paite; A Transborder Tribe of India and Burma, 1988, p.06, Mittal Publications, Delhi(India).
52. Lewin, T.H,Col.; The Lushai Expedition 1871-72, wrote that "the generic name of the whole nation is Dzo", as cited by Mangkhosat Kipgen in his book Christianity and Mizo Culture, 1996, p.18, para;2.
53. Songate, L. Hranglien.; Hmar Chanchin, 1977, p.1,; 5.,
Churachandpur, Manpur, India.
54. Lien, Z.Z, M.A.; The û-now People; An Historical Survey of the People viz; Mizo, Zomi, Kuki, Chin and the Allied Tribes of N.E India and Burma, 1981, Churachandpur, Manipur, gives the list of the Chin Tribe of Burma in which Zo is listed at serial no.9.
55. Shaw, William.; Thadou Kuki, Govt. of Assam, 1929, p.4, 5, Kohima.
56. Davis, A.W.; Gazetteer of the North Lushai Hills, 1925, Reprint 1987, Matero Company, Delhi.
57. Shakespeare, John.; The Lushai Kuki Clans, 1912, p.142, Macmillan& Co. Ltd, London. The Paihte or Vuite had already reached the Lushai Hills by about 1877 A.D, as reported by J. Shakespeare, when they took over the Hills. Lushai language does not have the letter ‘g’ which might have been replaced by letter ‘v’, and so in place of Guite, Vuite must have been found appropriate by the writer.
58. Kipgen, Mangkhosat.; Christianity and Mizo Culture, 1996, p.18.
59. Thanglienmang, Philip.; Dictionary of Zo Poetic words, Metaphors and Similes Vol.1, 2006, Zoculsin, New Delhi.
57+60. Ibid.; A Brief History of Sub. Peter Thangkhokam(1919-2000 A.D),
2006, p.19, Moti Daman, U.T of Daman and Diu, cited in Tungnung Khang Simna Laibu, 2008, p. 4, 6, 102, Zoveng, Churachandpur. 61. Go Lien, Andrew, Fr.; Na theisiem ta ei mah?, 2005, Yangon(Phaitu).
62. Vaiphei, Prim.S,; The Vaiphei Tribe, 1975, p.2 para; 1, K. Lengpau, Checkon, Imphal, printed at Churachandpur, Manipur, India.
63. Guite, Zamzachin.; Paite Tanchin, 1992, p.5, para; 2, published by N. Zatawn, printed at Tongvom Press, New Lambulane, Imphal.
64. Ibid.; p.5, para; 3.
65. Vumson.; Zo History, 1992, p.5.
66. David Vumlallian Zou.; Glimpses of Zou Ethno-History; circa 2004 unpublished.
67. Zomi Village.; It was founded the Zou Ex-servicemen association near Manipur Rifle Centre, North A.O.C, Imphal adjoining Kanan Veng, Imphal in 1975, with Mr.Chinkhozam Munluo as it headman.
68. Zomi Colony.; Mr. Chinkham Munluo as its founder chief in the heart of Churachandpur town.
69. Zo Christian Bible Church.; Established in 2003; a break way group of former Zomi Christian Church(Z.C.C) which was transformed into ELCC (now known as Manipur Evangelical Lutheran Church) in the year 2004 A.D at Zomi Colony, Churachandpur, Manipur, India.
70. Mang Kho Lien.; Upzie Kantelna Part II, 2004, Kalemyo, Myanmar.

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